God's Perpetual Hebrew Calendar

by John P. Pratt
28 Feb 2017, 1 Adar2 (PHC), 1 Monkey (SR), 1 Res (UV), 1 Lord (UMa), Esther (E)

©2017 by John P. Pratt. All rights Reserved.

Index, Home

Contents
1. Perpetual Hebrew Calendar
1.1 PHC Year Wheel
1.2 Great Year Wheel
1.3 Assembling the Gears
2. Religious Chronology Update
2.1 New Holy Day: Last Light
2.2 Twelve Tribes
2.3 Moses and Aaron
2.4 Latter-days
3. Conclusion
Notes
The Perpetual Hebrew Calendar is a masterpiece of implementing the day-year pattern and now correctly indicates sacred event dates throughout history.

The traditional Hebrew Calendar is not accurate over long periods of time, so an improved version has been sought in my work. Moreover, decades of sacred calendar research indicate that God is using such a calendar for timing important holy events, but which differs from the Hebrew Calendar. My best approximation of His true version is called the Perpetual Hebrew Calendar (PHC) in my articles,[1] but the details of its workings have not been fully understood. This article announces the recent discovery of enough of those details to allow the PHC for the first time to correctly indicate the holy days for all 200 religious events listed in my Religious Chronology. This updated and more correct version has been implemented in all of the calendar conversion programs on this website.

Clock with precision gears.
(Courtesy of Bill's Clockworks)
Section 1 of this article discusses the detailed workings of the PHC including several new discoveries. It is still only known to within about 90% accuracy, but it is the first version to be 100% accurate on all of the known anchor dates. As new dates are discovered using other sacred calendars, some of which appear to be 100% certain,[2] some minor details may still be adjusted without changing of the currently known dates. Those not interested in the details of the PHC may skip Section 1 without loss of understanding of the new results and the very few corrections to proposed historical dates discussed in Sections 2.

Each of the many parts of the PHC is a witness of the Creator and that the precise orbital periods of both earth and moon were carefully designed down to seconds in order to produce a long term (7,000 year) calendar with holy days occurring correctly over that entire period. Those witnesses of the Creator were already presented in earlier articles,[3] so they will not be repeated here. Those articles summarize most of the gears making up of the "cosmic clock" of the PHC. The situation has been similar to having all of the gears from a beautifully crafted mechanical clock with a note, "Some assembly required"! That assembly was finally finished last week.

1. Perpetual Hebrew Calendar

Hebrew Calendar
Fig. 1. The Hebrew Calendar's 12 months.
The Hebrew Calendar attempts to track the average positions of both the sun and the moon in the sky and to also keep them aligned with the sacred week of seven days.
[4] That is a very tricky task! For comparison, the Gregorian Calendar which most of the world uses today tracks only the sun. The Hebrew Calendar has a year usually having twelve months (See Figure 1). It coordinates these three cycles by having every month start near a new moon when it is either invisible or a very thin crescent in the western sky after sunset on an odd numbered day of the week (1 Sunday, 3 Tuesday, 5 Thursday, or 7 Saturday). Years are used to track the sun's annual cycle of the seasons by having the year usually begin at the new moon nearest the spring equinox.[5] Because twelve lunar months are about 11 days short of a solar year, a thirteenth month is added to the end of the year about every three years to keep the beginning of the year in the spring.

The traditional Hebrew Calendar (or simply "Hebrew Calendar") uses what is called the Metonic cycle to determine the length of each year. Six year lengths are needed to successfully create a series of years to do the job: 353, 354, or 355 days in years with 12 months (called "common" years) and 383, 384 or 385 days for years with 13 months (called "leap" years). A sequence of 11 such years returns one to about 2 days later in the true solar year and a series of 8 returns one to two days earlier. Combining them into one series of 19 years called the Metonic Cycle comes so close to the true length of a solar year that it is only off by about one day in 200 years. The Metonic cycle always contains 12 common years and 7 leap years. Many have noted that both 12 and 7 are sacred numbers. It is used forever in the Hebrew Calendar.

While such a cycle suggests that a wheel with 19-years on it could be used repeatedly to calculate the Hebrew Calendar, that doesn't work because the day of the week changes with each 19-year cycle. The solution used in the Hebrew Calendar is to actually calculate the position of the moon with great accuracy for one day near mid-year and use that result to determine the exact beginning day of each year. After that, the lengths of months in each of the possible year lengths is fixed.

1.1 PHC Year Wheel

PHC Year Wheel
Fig.2. Successive PHC year lengths.
To me it seemed that there must be some sort of year-cycle wheel that could be used to determine the year length for any year in history. After all, the whole idea of a calendar is to use mathematics to calculate positions of the sun and moon and then find a simple pattern that is used to know the positions without any more calculations. For example, we know to plant peas on St. Patrick's day each spring without having to calculate the sun's position. That calculation was done by astronomers who created our Gregorian Calendar. Thus the Hebrew Calendar only appeared half done because a mathematical calculation still needs to be done for every year!

After three years the Hebrew calendar usually repeats to within four days on the true solar year.[6] In 1990 it was discovered that a table of sets of three Hebrew years (each called a "triplet") could be used to calculate Metonic cycles. Each triplet had one leap year between two common years. In 1994 it was discovered that if the table contained 11 triplets, then it ended back almost exactly at the starting point. That meant that it could be used as a wheel with the first triplet following the last, so it could be used perpetually. Thus the Perpetual Hebrew Calendar Year Wheel was discovered with the calendar named accordingly. It has 33 years divided into 11 sets of triplets (See Figure 2). One begins on any of the triplets and count a sequence 11 years. At that point, instead of using the next year, one jumps to the triplet beginning with that same color year and weekday. For example, starting with the first year at the top (a Red Sunday 354, meaning it must begin on a Sunday and have 354 days) one counts 11 years. What would have been the twelfth is a Blue Saturday 353 year. Instead of continuing to use that year, jump to the triplet beginning on a Blue Saturday, which is easily found at about the 9 o'clock position by looking at the first entry in the blue colored division of the Saturday area. From that point one continues with another sequence of 8 years for a total of 19 years, which forms one Metonic cycle containing 12 common years and 7 leap years. After that, jump again to the indicated triplet (a Yellow Tuesday 355) to begin the next Metonic Cycle.

The wheel is so accurate that the process can be continued for about 90 years before getting about one triplet off. At that point one can just jump clockwise to the next triplet and continue for about another 90 years. That much has been known since its discovery over twenty years ago. Until now, the big question about the wheel has been to find the exact pattern which God uses to make those jumps.

1.2 Great Metonic Year Wheel

Great Metonic Year Wheel
Fig. 3. Order of Great Metonic Years.
Perhaps the most amazing discovery is that there is a whole set of wheels that are in the ratio of one year to a day. In my work that is called the Day-Year Pattern. For example, the Lord counts a 7-year "week" of years just like He reckons a 7-day week. The Hebrews call the last year of each such week the sabbatical (sabbath) year. In my work the names of years are capitalized. Thus, SUNDAY is the name of the first of the seven years in a week and SATURDAY is the name of the last.

Moreover, a "month" of 30 years is defined in my work, similar to a month of 30 days, after which the Hebrew calendar approximately repeats. It is formed of a 19-year Metonic cycle followed by another 11-year sequence from the PHC Year Wheel for 30 years total. That 30-year grouping was named a Great Metonic Month in an earlier article.

Even more astounding is that there is a set of 353 years, similar to 353 days, which forms a Great Metonic Year (GMY) in which the Hebrew calendar repeats much better that in continuous Metonic Cycles. It is the kind of correction the Hebrew Calendar needs. It is a set of 18 Metonic cycles which has an accumulated error of about two days, followed by an 11-day cycle which brings the total error back to very near zero (18x19+11=353). One can even make a leap GMY by adding an extra 30-year month for a total of 383 years, even as the Hebrew calendar has a year of 383 days. Hopefully the reader is beginning to see the design of a Creator in all of this!

In the case of the Hebrew Calendar, in order to fit every year to the days of the week, a total of six different year lengths are needed. In order to fit the years correcting into the week of seven years, a total of six different year lengths are also required.

Most amazing of all, there is a very long unit that can be made of 12 GMYs of 353 years plus 4 GMYs of 383 years plus 3 GMYs of 380 years in a nearly identical pattern to the Metonic Cycle. It is called a Great Metonic Cycle in my work: 12*353 + 4*383 + 3*380 = 6,908 years (2,523,094 days). That period is close to the 7,000 needed to cover all of history. The average length of the lunar cycle in that period is 29.5305946 days which is extremely close to the best modern estimate of 29.5305956 days. The value used for calculating the Hebrew calendar is 29.5305941 days which is so good that it's been proposed in my earlier papers that the Hebrew value must have been given by revelation because no one could have measured it so accurately back then.

Because the Great Metonic Cycle is not an exact number of weeks of years, even as the Metonic cycle is not an exact number of weeks of days, another year wheel is needed. It is also made up of six types of GMYs: 350, 353, 356, 359, 380 and 383 years. They can be placed in the GMY Year Wheel shown in Figure 3. This illustration was also in my 2007 article on the subject, but it was not at all clear how to use it. Now it has been discovered that it is used the same as the PHC Year Wheel: Starting on a triplet, count 11 GMYs followed by jumping to the next series of 8 for a total of the entire cycle of 19 GMYs. It is so well organized that the second sequence of 8 starts over at the same place as the first 11 did. That sequence of 8 ends such that the next 11 begins one triplet before the first 11. That pattern can be followed indefinitely, but just one set of 19 suffices nearly all of history.

1.3 Assembling the Gears

So far this has been a review of what has been known since 2007. There have been several problems to solve in order to assemble those gears into a working cosmic clock. Now answers to most of those enigmas have been discovered. Repeated Warning: Those not interested in these nitty-gritty details of the inner clock workings can skip this section with no loss of understanding the results.

Great Metonic Years
Table 1. Begin dates & GMY Lengths from GMY Wheel.
Starting Day. The first question is exactly on what day should the calendar begin. The day must be not only the first day of a Hebrew year, but also one beginning a Great Metonic Year which starts a triplet on the Great Metonic Year Wheel. After having tried many different starting points the only one which works to begin GMY 1 is Sun 26 Mar -4000 (4001 BC, on our Gregorian Calendar), which is precisely the year designated at the Beginning of Mortality in my work![7] That is a strong witness of the Creator's invisible hand! That year was a THURSDAY year on the 7-year sabbatical cycle which is allowed on the GMY Wheel.

The Great Metonic Year Wheel has six slots which begin THURSDAY years, two of which begin triplets. All of them were extensively researched until it was shown that the only one which could work to produce an elegant calendar that fit all known historical anchor dates was the triplet beginning with "THU 350" (near the "2 o'clock" position in Figure 3). The THU means the year was a THURSDAY year and the 350 means that the GMY was 350 years long.

Using the GMY Wheel. It has not been known exactly how to use the GMY Wheel, but there has been one clue: the Meridian of Time. The time of the birth of Christ divided history into two parts. That point of division is somewhat past the midpoint of history and varies slightly according to what calendar is used. On the Jubilee Calendar in which history is divided into seven parts (millennia), the point comes 4/7 of the way through (57%), which begins the jubilee year 0 AD (1 BC), the very year of Christ's birth. On the Enoch Calendar which divides history into twenty Great Years of 364 Enoch years each, it comes exactly at 11/20 of the way (55%), also at 0 AD. From the discovery of the Great Metonic Cycle having 19 parts, it has seemed likely that the Meridian of Time probably occurs 11/19 of the way through (58%), especially since both the regular and great versions of the Metonic Cycle naturally divide into 11 parts followed by 8 more. Sure enough, that is how it turned out. Counting 11 Great Years on the GMY Wheel starting from Sun 26 Mar -4000 at the THU 350 position brings one to -3 AD (4 BC), just three years before the birth of Christ. It was startling to discover how close that point was to His birth. All of the sacred calendars known in my work are centered on Christ! Table 1 shows the beginning dates of all GMYs in history, calculated by jumping to the former and following sequences on the GMY Year Wheel as discussed above. Also listed are each weekday name of the beginning year of the GMY (such as THU) and also its length in years (such as 350).

PHC Year Wheel Counting. While counting 11 years followed by 8 years works on the PHC Year Wheel to create a Metonic Cycle, there are many other options. One way to construct a 353-year is to simply count out 19 Metonic Cycles but skipping the final 8-year segment. That would be nearly identical to the Hebrew Calendar which simply counts forever by Metonic cycles. That was indeed my first thought, but it was clearly not how God thinks! God loves variety!

According to Hebrew sources, the goal of regulating the Hebrew calendar was that the day of Passover on the 15th day of the first month should never fall before the spring equinox (20 or 21 March Gregorian). That is another way of saying that the first day of the year should be as near as possible to the equinox. That means that the first day would never be before 6 Mar and not after 6 Apr. That minimum range could be achieved by counting straight sequences of Metonic Cycles on the PHY Year Wheel (except for the slow drift later in the year if not corrected by a GMY). That would be simple and consistent, but also boring!

Variety in creation within set bounds.
(Mandarin Dragonet Fish)
There is something that God does that was the key to what made it possible to determine how this calendar works. He had some of his greatest prophets born on days which were holy on many sacred calendars so that the exact dates would be clear. Moreover, some of them were born at the very extremes of the allowed possibilities on the PHC. For example, Adam first breathed the breath of life on a day that represented birth on so many sacred calendars that it was easy to discover without even knowing the year. On the PHC, however, the day also occurred in a year that would have to have started on 9 Apr, beyond the expected range. Similarly, John the Baptist was beheaded in a PHC year beginning on 10 Apr. At the other extreme, Enoch was translated in a year beginning on the extremely early day of 3 Mar, which breaks the rule of Passover occurring on or after the equinox. Thus, the actual range of the year is several days longer than expected from straight Metonic cycles.

How can that wide range be accomplished and what are the rules governing it? It turns out a 19-year Metonic Cycle can be divided up in several ways on the PHC Year Wheel, provided that it consists of two sequences of years each of which starts on a triplet. That division ensures that it will contain 12 common years and 7 leaps years. The example given so far is to use 11 years (lowers two days in solar year) followed by 8 years (raises back 2 days). Another possibility is to count 5 years (raises 6 days) followed by 14 years (lowers 6 days) which brings one to exactly the same place but extends the range of start dates by 4 extra days, such as having a high start date of 10 Apr rather than 6 Apr. One could also count 2 days (raise 9 days) and then 17 days (lower 9 days) to maximize the range of one Metonic Cycle. Such divisions of a Metonic cycle could provide the required spread. But now it is necessary to discover the rules which govern the wide variety that God apparently loves in His creations within the bounds He sets. In this case, the question arises whether the bounds are that the variation must be kept to be within one Metonic Cycle as in the examples just given.

The exact details of this variation are still not fully understood. A set of rules has been constructed which allows the entire calendar to be calculated just from being given the starting date, so the same rules apply throughout all 7,000 years. Some of them, however, could still be adjusted slightly with the discovery of new known anchor dates. This is one source of the mere 90% accuracy claimed at the beginning of this article.

PHC Year Wheel advances. The precise use of the PHC Year Wheel has not been known. It was discovered by showing that one use is to count 11 years, then jump to a new triplet starting slot that matches what would have been next year, and then counting 8 more years to complete one Metonic Cycle. That process can be repeated for almost 90 years and still accurately represent the coming of the new moon to start the next year. After that time, it is necessary to advance one triplet, which often does not even change the starting day. For example, looking at Figure 1, if the next Metonic Cycle would have begun on a Blue Tuesday (about 2 o'clock on the wheel) then it would jump to begin the next triplet three slots later on a Red Tuesday. Thus the year would still begin on a Tuesday even though the triplet was advanced. Those colors indicate the precise position of the moon as to how visible it should be on the first day of the year. Only recently in the last few months was it discovered that advancing the starting triplet four times in common Great Metonic Years and five times in leap Great Metonic Years yields perfect accuracy over a sequence of 19 GMYs. The last triplet advance is then skipped in the last GMY of the sequence.

Great Metonic Year Colors. The triplets on the PHC Year Wheel are colored according to exact age (visibility) of the new moon on the beginning date. In my current model each Great Metonic Year also has a similar color. They are not shown in Figure 3 because the color depends upon just what year is chosen as the beginning year. Those colors are used to determine just when the triplet advances are done.

Year Template. Once the year length is determined for any given year, the Hebrew Calendar has a fixed set of month lengths for each year. In common years all of the variation in month lengths occurs in the eighth and ninth months, having either 29 or 30 days. The other ten months always have the same fixed lengths, alternating months of 30 and 29 days, averaging 29.5 days, very close to the 29.53-day lunar cycle length. In leap years, an extra month called Adar 1 of 30 days is inserted before the last month of 29 days with the last month being renamed from Adar to Adar 2 (or Ve Adar).

For my purposes, it was important to know if God is actually using those Hebrew Calendar month lengths for the PHC or if they were simply man-made. It could not be assumed that any part of the Hebrew Calendar was correct without testing it. The result has been that the traditional Hebrew month lengths work in every case, so there was no need to change them.

Metonic Cycles vs Metonic Months
Fig. 4. PHC Year Wheel sequence variations have fixed limits of one Great Metonic Month.
Great Metonic Months. The biggest mystery to me has been how to arrange Metonic Cycles within any given Great Metonic Year. The elegant method recently discovered not only works, it is compelling because it is based on the same day-year pattern which led to the discovery of the 353-year Great Metonic Year. The Hebrew Calendar year of 354 days has months alternating between 30 and 29 days to average 29.5 (the length of the lunar month).

Could a similar arrangement be used to divide a Great Metonic Year into Great Metonic Months? It turns out that a simple regrouping of a series of Metonic Cycles can accomplish exactly that! Figure 4 shows how a straight series of 11-year and 8-year sequences from the GMY Year Wheel can be thought of in two entirely different ways. On the one hand, it is simply a series of Metonic cycles. But on the other hand, if considered to be groups of three sequences, then it can be thought of as an alternating series of Great Metonic Months of 30 and 27 years. This has been one of the hidden secrets behind the Great Metonic Year! At its heart is not a series of Metonic Cycles, but instead each GMY has a fixed pattern of Great Metonic months! The answer to the question posed above about the bounds set to the variation allowed in sequence lengths is not that they are limited to one Metonic Cycle but rather to one Metonic Month.

For example, a Great Metonic Year of 353 years can be formed of 9 Great Months of 30 years, 1 of 29 years (with four sequences), and 2 of 27 years. The other required Great Metonic Year lengths can all be achieved by switching years of 27 for 30 in common GMYs and adding an extra 30 in leap GMYs. That is extremely compelling both because it follows the same pattern as the usual Hebrew year and also because it works! It is astounding to me that this division into Great Months was only discovered this month when it now seems like it should have been one of the first options explored. It has been a hidden secret until this time.

In the current PHC model the arrangement and length of Great Months is the same in every Great Year of a given length. That is the rule for the Hebrew Calendar and it also works for the PHC. Thus, God's house is a house of order. There are some rules which are always followed and others which allow the vast variation that we see throughout His creations. Unbridled variation is not allowed, but rather every law always applies only within certain bounds (D&C 88:38). In this case the variation discussed in traversing the PHC Year Wheel is not confined to Metonic cycles as were used in the examples given above about using the PHC Year Wheel. In fact, the Metonic Cycle as such is not even explicitly used anywhere in the PHC. The bounds to the variations in counting around the wheel are established by the length of each Great Metonic Month. Thus, once a Great Metonic Year length is known, the arrangement of Great Month PHC Year Wheel sequence lengths for that GMY are then all locked in. Finally, once the pattern of sequences is determined for any given month, then it must stay that way throughout history.

For example, in the current model every Great Metonic Year of any length always has 30 years in its first month of years. That is the same as the Hebrew Calendar in which the first month always has 30 days. The PHC Year Wheel count for that month is always an 11-year sequence, followed by jumping to a 5-year sequence, and ending with a 14-year sequence for a total of 30 years. That 11-5-14 pattern gives four days more variation in the beginning date of the year in spring than a straight Metonic 11-8-11 year count. That choice of counts was made because it fits the historical dates. That same pattern is used for the first month of all 21 Great Metonic Years in history. The compelling evidence that it is correct is that the same pattern always works. After more than a decade working on this, it is clear that almost any little mistake breaks the calendar. That is why the rules seem certain enough to publish now.

That summarizes the principal elements of the PHC as currently understood. It is believed that all of the rules presented here are finally known and accurate. Those not explicitly explained are still subject to minor corrections.

2. Religious Chronology Update

In the process of checking all 200 published proposed dates of historical religious events, it became clear that about half of them are truly anchor dates which were locked in by the witness of several other sacred calendars. The most important of those is the Sacred Round which is a perpetual day count of 260 days which never has any extra leap days inserted. Like the week, it is a fixed grid to which proposed dates can be anchored.

Thus, it was expected that some dates in my proposed Religious Chronology would be modified when the true PHC was discovered. Indeed, such has been the case but only for a very few dates. Some formerly proposed dates turn out to be impossible on the PHC and others which were formerly not considered viable are now allowed as candidates.

Let us now discuss those dates which have changed due to the recent advances in the PHC.

2.1 New Holy Day: Last Light

Twenty Holy Days
Fig. 5. Twenty holy days as life steps: Hebrew (outer 2 rings), Sacred Round (next 2), and Venus Calendar (inner).
Surprisingly, one of the strongest anchor dates in history is the birth date of the patriarch Enos, grandson of Adam. His name means mortal (deriving from "death") and much of the symbolism of the dates of his birth, ordination and death has to do with death! He was born and died on the day 1 Skull on the Sacred Round. The star associated with the day of his death is that of the Stinger in the Scorpion. His vital dates link to (are the same as) those of his son so it cannot be adjusted. On the former PHC model, his birth date was 1 Tebeth, the first day of winter. That also is the day on the PHC which represents death, so it all seemed like a perfect match in symbolism. Figure 5 shows how all 20 pictures from the Sacred Round, which represent steps of life, correspond to holy days in the same order on other sacred calendars including the PHC. Notice the picture of the Skull, representing death, corresponds to 1 Tebeth, the PHC winter solstice when the sun dies at its farthest point south. On the brighter side, it is also the day on which it begins its journey back toward more light.

Using the new PHC calendar that day turns out to be 2 Tebeth, not 1 Tebeth. So did that cause the new PHC model to be rejected? When the discrepancy was pondered, it turned out it still fits perfectly! The day 25 Kislev one week earlier in the preceding month is the beginning of the 8-day Festival of Lights (Hanukkah). Depending on the year, the last day of that holy week usually falls on 2 Tebeth. In traditional Judaism, none of the days of Hanukkah are major holy days on which no work is to be done. It is just a festival during which a candle is lit on each of the days.

One small candle is lit each day of the Festival of Lights (Hanukkah).
In my work it was discovered that 25 Kislev is truly a holy day because major prophets including Noah were born or died on that day. In other holy weeks such as both Passover and the Feast of Tabernacles, the law of Moses prescribes that both the first and the last day are sacred days of rest. There has not been an indication until now that the last day of the Festival of Lights also appears to be a holy day.

The name of that last day of the Festival of Lights can be called "Last Light", when the last candle is lit. The deeper symbolism could be that it represents the second death after which one's light goes out. If so, 1 Tebeth represents physical death and 2 Tebeth is spiritual death. The last day of the Festival of Lights can occur on either 2 or 3 Tebeth, depending on the year length. The current understanding of the PHC is that Last Light is only a holy day when it falls on 2 Tebeth. Thus, Enos was born on the holy day Last Light, consistent with all of the other death symbols.

2.2 Twelve Tribes

One date which changed concerning Jacob and his sons who became fathers of the twelve tribes of Israel was the date of his wedding to Rachel. Before it was listed as 1 Iyar, but now that has been changed on the PHC Calendar to be the holy day 1 Nisan, the first day of the year. The date of his marriage to Leah a week earlier is also changed, but it was not on a holy day.

The births of twelve of the children of Jacob (Israel) occurred in the seven years after his marriages to Leah and Rachel. Those birth dates all fall in one sequence on the PHC Year Wheel. Only one of the proposed dates of the thirteen children of Jacob (don't forget Dinah!) has to be adjusted according to the new PHC. It is the birth date of Gad, which had been one of the least certain.[9]

The Feast of Dedication (Hanukkah) celebrates the rededication of Solomon's Temple.
The formerly proposed birth date for Gad fell on the Hebrew day 1 Kislev. Using the new model, that day is no longer even a possible candidate. There is, however, a much better new allowed candidate which was formerly not possible. The new proposed birth date of Gad is Wed 28 Nov -1802 (1803 BC) which fell on 25 Kislev, the Festival of Lights. The impressive second witness to that date being correct is that it falls on 1 Temple (SR), the one day every 260 which represents birth (when one gets the temple of the body)! It also fell on the rare day 1 Translation on the Mars Calendar.

There is another witness that the date is not only correct but may have deep meaning. The Festival of Lights is also known as the Feast of Dedication (Hanukkah) because it celebrates when the one-day supply of oil for the eternal flame kept burning for 8 days at the rededication of the Temple of Solomon on Mon 21 Nov -164 (165 BC) which fell on 25 Kislev. That date is not one proposed by me, but is a well established date from history. It turns out that day was also both the day 1 Temple on the Sacred Round and also a rare holy day on the Mars Calendar. The date proposed for Gad's birth is also both of those! Of course, 1 Temple is an ideal date for the temple to be born again, with the double symbolism of being a temple and also being born! The fact that the Mars Calendar is involved is an added witness that something important is going on. The name Gad is linguistically similar to the English "Goth", so the question arises whether the Goths, for whom Gothic cathedrals (temples?) are named, might be from that tribe.

2.3 Moses and Aaron

Moses ordains Aaron.
The date of the birth of Moses was in the most uncertain part of the Hebrew Calendar year when the leap days and month are inserted. It has been known to have been on either 14 or 15 Shebat, which is the priestly month. Modern Hebrews consider 15 Shebat to be a minor holy called the "New Year for Trees", when some fruit trees begin to awaken after winter to begin a new fruit bearing cycle. With the new much more stable PHC calendar, it appears that both 14 and 15 Shebat are holy days. Formerly it had been proposed that Moses was born on 15 Shebat and was translated on 14 Shebat. On the new PHC, he was both born and translated on 14 Shebat. That is actually more consistent with the Bible which implies that he took his final hike up the mountain on his 120th birthday (Deut. 31:2).

His brother Aaron, namesake of the Aaronic Priesthood, did not have a very illustrious birth date before, but it was the best available and seemed worth publishing. It fell on 1 Kislev which was a date which had no apparent connection with the Priesthood, his principal calling.

On the new version of the PHC, his birth date is allowed to fall on Wed 12 Jan -1544 (1545 BC) which was the day 1 Shebat. That holy day begins the priestly month of Shebat. Levi, father of the priestly tribe, was born on 14 Shebat and died on 1 Shebat! Thus, Levi's vital dates tie to both of these illustrious great grandsons of his!

Another date which changed was that of Moses going before Pharaoh. Before it was listed as being 1 Tebeth, but with the new PHC it is a month later on 1 Shebat, a priestly holy day.

2.4 Latter-days

Discovering the golden plates on the Feast of Tabernacles.
There are a few important corrections in latter-day dates using the new PHC differing from my former model. As we near the end of the 19 GMYs from Adam, the moon's age at the beginning of the year is higher, which has the effect of putting that first day a day or so later than the usual position. This was apparently done with purpose and has the spiritual meaning of being in a more holy time. All changes are listed on my Religious Chronology, but only the significant ones will now be discussed.

Learns of Golden Plates. Joseph Smith's prayer on the evening of Sun 21 Sep 1823 and the appearance the angel telling him of the golden plates throughout the night and finally actually finding the place the plates were buried all occurred on the same Hebrew day because it started in the evening. That day was 17 Tishri on both the Hebrew Calendar and also on my former version of the PHC which is not a holy day. On the new PHC, that date falls on 15 Tishri, the Feast of Tabernacles, which is a bigger feast even than Passover in the spring.

1829. All of the dates (after March) in 1829 now differ from the former PHC and the Hebrew Calendar by an entire month and also a day or two. The first day of the year was later than usual, on Mon 7 April, which seems to have the significance of being a more holy year as mentioned earlier. That was the very day on which Oliver Cowdery began to act as scribe for the Prophet Joseph Smith. It has already been noted that that same day was doubly sacred on the Enoch Calendar, being both the holy day and the year of Consecration. It was also holy on 5 other sacred calendars, including being 13 Temple on the Sacred Round, the day of the resurrection of Jesus Christ.

John the Baptist restores Aaronic Priesthood.
All of the dates during that year could be researched for occurring on holy days which would have been overlooked before. The only principal day that was holy on the former PHC but not the new version is the date of the Book of Mormon going on sale on Thu 25 Mar 1830. That date is very holy on the Native American sacred calendars of the Sacred Round, the Venus and the Mercury calendars. All of that is still true, and it was New Year's Day on the Hebrew Calendar, but not on the new PHC.

1831. The other year which is significantly changed is 1831. It starts extremely late in that 30-year Great Metonic Month: on Thu 14 Apr 1831. It does not change any holy days listed on my Religious Chronology but the importance seems profound because of the following pattern involving John the Baptist. The year AD 29 began on 3 Apr and the year AD 1829 began on 7 Apr (both late in the spring). In AD 29 John baptized Jesus and in 1829 he appeared and authorized Joseph and Oliver to baptize each other. The year AD 31 began on 10 Apr and in 1831 it began on 14 Apr (both at the extreme limits for the GMY). The year AD 31 was the year of John's execution. The year 1831 also in a way represented a high point in the restoration of the Church. It was the year that the first high priests were ordained and also when the saints attempted to found the city of Zion to live the law of consecration. After that failed, the Church was given lower laws to live, such as the law of tithing. Thus, the four high spiritual events all occurred in PHC years which commenced late in the spring. Surely much more remains to be discovered in this area.

All other restoration holy dates listed remain intact, except that the Nauvoo temple no longer had it cornerstone laid on Passover, but two days previous.

3. Conclusion

Many new details of the workings of the Perpetual Hebrew Calendar, which God seems to be using, have been recently discovered and implemented into the PHC calculator programs on this website. Each facet of the details is a witness of the amazingly precise crafting by the Creator of the earth's and moon's orbits to create a precision timepiece that runs accurately throughout history. All of the features of the traditional Hebrew year remain intact, but the intercalation is done according to the Lord's day-year pattern, rather than counting straight Metonic Cycles. That pattern is based on years being counted in the same manner as days, such as 30-year Great Metonic Months similar to 30-day lunar months, and 353-year common and 383-year leap Great Metonic Years similar to the 353-day and 383-day years of the Hebrew Calendar. Rules for use of the PHC Year Wheel and the GMY Wheel are discussed as well as other details required to understand the PHC. Truly it is a crown jewel among calendars and a powerful, compelling witness of the handiwork of the Creator!

Notes

  1. My calendar work began in 1981 with the Aztec Calendar followed by the Enoch Calendar and Star Calendar, both implied by the Book of Enoch. By 1989 it was clear that the Hebrew Calendar needed correction because it slowly drifts by about one day every 200 years. My sacred history chronology was also begun at that time. The Perpetual Hebrew Calendar was introduced in "Celestial Witnesses of the Meridian of Time" Meridian Magazine (10 Jul 2002), Section 1, in a discussion of its day-year pattern.
  2. The calendars known with 100% accuracy include some which never insert any leap days, but instead are simple repeating day counts. The 7-day week actually forms a calendar by itself and is known perfectly. The Sacred Round with its 260-day count is another example.
  3. Pratt, John P., "The Hebrew Calendar Testifies of the Creator" Meridian Magazine (26 Oct 2007) describes each of the gears and shows how their existence witnesses having been carefully crafted by a Creator. But their use was a mystery. My article "How Leap Years Testify of a Creator" (29 Feb 2016) also adds additional witnesses of God just from those orbital periods.
  4. All of the sacred calendars discussed in my work track the average, not actual, position of celestial bodies. At the time of Christ an observational version was used in which observers went out and looked for the thin crescent moon to determine the beginning of the day. The Hebrew Calendar does not do that, which allows one to calculate dates far into both the past and the future.
  5. The modern version of the Hebrew Calendar reckons years as beginning at the first of the what is still called the seventh month in the fall (Rosh Hashanah). For some purposes that is indeed the beginning of the year, but the principal beginning point is in the spring.
  6. After three years the Hebrew Calendar often repeats exactly on the Enoch Calendar with 364-day years. Thus several sacred events during the 3-year public ministry of the Savior occurred on repeating days on both calendars.
  7. See "Venus and the Beginning of Mortality" Meridian Magazine (9 Jul 2003), Section 5: "The Beginning of Mortality". Moreover, that day was also the day on which the PHC "Great Years" begin. Great Years are defined by using the PHC Year Wheel to reckon in numbers of years instead of days. Great Years are just a method of counting and have nothing to do with the actual positions of the sun or moon. That is the job of Great Metonic Years. It seemed too confusing to bring up Great Years along with Great Metonic Years in the main text of this article, but it should be understood by the serious student. Great Years were introduced in "Celestial Witnesses of the Meridian of Time" Meridian Magazine (10 Jul 2002), Section 1: "The Day-Year Pattern", and are explained more in "How Leap Years Testify of a Creator" (29 Feb 2016) Section 3.3: "Day-Year Pattern", where it is noted that "The Beginning of Mortality from which our time is measured began in a year NEW YEAR'S DAY." That NEW YEAR'S DAY year began on Sun 26 Mar -4000 (4001 BC).
  8. The symbolism of these 20 holy days is explained in more detail in my "Celebrating Life on Twenty Holy Days" (18 Feb 2014) Section 2.3 "The Results: All Holy Days Match".
  9. A table of my originally proposed dates is found in my "Twelve Sons, Twelve Constellations" Meridian Magazine (13 Jul 2005) Section 1.5: Proposed Birth Dates.